The supervisory clinical psychologists at Center for Mental Health provide one on one clinical supervision in mental health for beginner clinical therapists and psychologists. The supervisory practice aims to promote self-reflection and satisfy therapist’s personal and
professional growth needs, and learn ethical practices in psychotherapy in the changing world.

Dr. Tanya Anand (she/her)


MPhil, PhD in Clinical Psychology
Senior Clinical Psychologist

Dr.Apoorva Shrivastava (she/her)

M.Phil. & Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology,
Senior Clinical Psychologist

Dr. Anusree Menon (she/her)


M.Sc. in Clinical Psychology,
Senior Counselling

Nupur Dhakephalkar (she/her)


M.Phil in Clinical Psychology
Founder,  Chief Clinical Psychologist

Dr.Arpita Misra (she/her)


M.Phil in Clinical Psychology, Manipal University
Senior Clinical Psychologist

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Therapist supervision refers to a formal process of reviewing and reflecting on the work that a professional is performing. In the context of clinical supervision psychotherapy, supervision sessions act as the space that mental health professionals use for professional growth, refining skills, and developing a clear personal working style.

Globally, different psychological and psychiatric associations have devised their own guidelines regarding the process of clinical supervision, including mandating it for students and professionals in health care. However, supervision in psychotherapy and counselling in India has been conditional until now. For well-trained psychotherapy practitioners providing quality-oriented services, supervision is key to bridge the gap between international standards and domestic needs.

Psychotherapy supervision services require a supervisory clinical or counselling psychologist who has several years of experience in providing general psychotherapy services and/or certain specialisation with a population or style of psychotherapy. A supervisee usually consists of postgraduates and early to middle-career mental health professionals providing any form of counselling or psychotherapy. Mental health professionals include psychologists, therapists, counsellors, psychiatrists,nurses, psychiatric social workers, and other similar professionals.

Clinical supervision in India is usually incorporated into practical training as a part of the curriculum at the time of training. On the other hand, clinical supervision in psychotherapy takes into consideration the individual needs and requirements of the psychotherapist and is
accordingly designed between the supervisor and supervisee. Although the overall structure of supervision can be flexible, there are some prerequisites for sound supervision. These include
● A collaborative approach between the supervisor and supervisee.
● The supervisee has received adequate education and training in the field.
● The supervisee is a practising professional.
● The supervisor has appropriate and functional credentials, experience, and competency in the area for which supervision will be provided.
● Mutual agreement about the areas in which supervision is needed.
● A clear division of responsibilities exists between the supervisor and supervisee.
● Is separate from psychotherapy sessions, consultations, training, or internships.

Throughout the world, systematic mental health care entails a form of compulsory supervision for all early to mid-career professionals. This is primarily to address the dynamic changes that occur due to ongoing research and development in the areas associated with clinical practice. Subsequently, the supervisor’s own experience and skill set act as a repository for addressing challenges and dilemmas in the professional’s working sphere. Therefore, this structure creates a working relationship that helps in resolution with considerations to the fundamentals and ethics of the profession.

Therapist supervision can significantly improve the quality of mental health care that the supervisee provides through resource sharing and guidance. More importantly, clinical supervision in mental health helps in ensuring that the therapist’s own limitations and barriers to perspectives in the form of biases and stigmas do not cloud the therapeutic relationship. This, in turn, ensures efficiency in service delivery.

While there are no clear guidelines for psychotherapy supervision in India, different types of clinical supervision in psychotherapy can be clubbed on the basis of the number of professionals involved in the process. Thus, the types of therapist supervision include:

● Individual supervision consists of one supervisor and one supervisee , usually from similar professional subject areas but where the supervisor has a significantly higher level of expertise.
● Group supervision consists of one supervisor and multiple supervisees where the supervisees come from similar professional backgrounds to learn specifically from one supervisor.
● Peer supervision does not have a single supervisor, rather a group of professionals from similar or diverse fields trying to acquire insights from one another.

Individual supervision, also known as one-to-one supervision, involves a therapist engaging in supervision with a single clinical or counselling supervisor. The supervisor and supervisee enter a working relationship that doesn’t involve any other individual’s input. This type of supervision is more private and therefore more flexible, as it addresses the needs of both the supervisor and the supervisee and has space for modifications.

Individual supervision can vary depending on the needs of the individual and where they are in their individual life. To start the process, it is essential for the supervisee to undergo the basic licensing, education, and training required to practise and then approach for supervision. It is recommended that supervision be sought by therapists as soon as they begin practice.

However, the need for therapist clinical supervision can arise at any stage or level of experience. And many experienced practitioners also indulge in supervision for reflection on their own practice and perspectives. Another critical aspect of supervision is being able to identify and contact a supervisor who has adequate knowledge and credibility. Asking questions about their experience as supervisors is always recommended. Search for professionals willing to inculcate your needs along with their agendas.

This can be a cumbersome process, as different mental health professionals have varying combinations of subject expertise and styles of supervision. Finding the correct supervisor requires understanding your own needs and goals that you wish to achieve from the supervision. And aligning them with your desired supervisor. Due to a lack of guidelines, many professionals seek supervision from either longterm practitioners or certified organisations which can guarantee proficiency.

The most common advantage of individual therapist supervision is the ability to tailor the sessions based on individual needs and expectancies. Establishing a working relationship is much easier in an individual setting as compared to group or peer supervision.

Another advantage is flexibility and dynamism of progress, as with time both the supervisor and supervisee begin to understand the process needs. This in turn helps them bridge the gaps and evolve in their respective roles within the session and as practitioners.

The primary disadvantage of individual supervision is the lack of input from peers and the inability to address challenges as a group. This, in turn, creates difficulties in clarifying and working on personal versus professional challenges.

Mental health professionals use supervision as a process for reflection and development.Currently, no guideline or structure exists within India for the supervision process as compared to internationally. It requires an experienced practitioner for the role of supervisor and an appropriately trained supervisee. The supervision process is tailored between the practitioners to address individual needs. There are different types of supervision, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Supervision helps in reviewing and keeping a check on the services provided, and therefore, plays a significant role in psychotherapy.

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